Supported by Allotments of the Regional Research Fund

Hatch Act, as Amended August 11, 1955

January 1 to December 31, 2000


Project:            NE-183 Multi disciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars









Cooperators 2











Curt Rom*

Donn Johnson

Ron McNew

Pat Fenn




Richard  Kiyomoto*







Dan Horton*







Esmaeil Fallahi*

Krishna Mohan






Peter Hirst*

Rick Foster

Paul Pecknold





Duane Greene*    

Wes Autio

John Clements





Renae Moran







Alan Jones*         

Phil Schwallier

Randy Beaudry

Greg Lang




W. Hal Schaffer*

M. Warmund






Turner Sutton*    

Dick Unrath






Bill Lord*







Win Cowgill*

Bill Tietje

Joe Goffreda

Dean Polk




Ian Merwin*







D. Roseberger*    

Susan Brown

D. Straub

Jim Schupp




David Ferree*      

Mike Ellis

Diane Miller





Anita Azarenko* 

S. Mehlenbacher






Rob Crassweller*                 Jayson Harper                     K.D. Hickey

George Greene

Jayson Harper

K.. Hickey

2 x  H

2 x H


L. Hull                                  Larry Hull                            J.M. Travis

J. Travis






Schuyler Seely*

LaMar Anderson






Keith Yoder*

Ross Byers






M. Elana Garcia*

Lorraine Berkett






Bruce Barritt*







Teryl Roper*







Alan Biggs*

Henry Hogmire






Stephen Miller













British Columbia

Cheryl Hampson

Harvey Quamme






John Cline






Nova Scotia

Danny Davidson













Administrative Advisor

Robert Seem







1  H - designates horticultural planting (objective 1) , P- designates Pest Management Planting (objective 2)

2  *- designates a voting member for participating state/institution



      I.  Evaluate horticultural qualities and pest susceptibilities of new apple cultivars, strains, and advanced selections at numerous locations throughout the United States to determine both the limitations and the positive attributes of these cultivars.

II.   Develop horticultural and pest management strategies for new cultivars or cultivar strains that are emerging as commercially accepted cultivars.

III.             Compare the costs of production and profitability of new apple cultivars.


Progress of the Work and Principal Accomplishments:

               Project objectives are being met by 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces consisting of 28 uniform plantings of new promising cultivars and advanced selections. Multi-state, uniform test orchards of 26 cultivar scion/rootstock combinations were planted in 1995. A protocol was established by the technical committee to collect core data to provide the basis for uniform observations to meet stated project objectives. A second test orchard of 20 cultivars  encompassing 29 sites was planted in the spring of 1999. Locations where both horticulture and pest susceptibility studies were established in MA, MI, and NY.  Several cooperators have additional cultivar test orchards from which corroborating data to support observations in the uniform test orchard can be obtained or from which additional data may be generated.   Two project cooperators (MA and NJ) continue to provide WWW access ( to annual reports and results. Upon completion of each study, final results, conclusions and recommendations will be made available on the WWW. The NE-183 listserv ( continues to be an extremely effective communication tool for cooperators to share results, facilitate committee business, and plan future meetings.


Object 1. Evaluate horticultural qualities and pest susceptibilities of new apple cultivars

               The first uniform test planting for the project was planted at multiple locations in 1995 with 5 replications of single trees of 18-26 cultivars (Arlet, Creston, Braeburn, Cameo, Enterprise, Fuji (BC Type II), Gala Supreme, Ginger Gold, Golden Delicious (Gibson strain), Golden Supreme, GoldRush, Honeycrisp, Fortune, NY 75414-1, Orin, Pristine, Sansa, Senshu, Shizuka, Suncrisp, Sunrise, Yataka) and rootstock combinations with controls for both scion cultivar and rootstock.  At some sites separate “horticultural” and “pest study” trials were planted and maintained. At other sites, both horticultural and pest susceptibly characteristics were studied in the same plots.   The 2000 season was the fourth cropping season for the trial orchards at most locations.  The horticultural sub-committee developed a core data set for tree growth measurements and flowering, fruiting and fruit quality.  A pest control sub-committee developed guidelines for pest management in the test orchard and for the uniform assessment of pest and disease observations.

               A second uniform planting of new promising apple cultivars and advanced selections was planted in the spring of 1999. This second planting will also have a primary designation of either horticultural or pest susceptibility studies. Plantings for horticulture are located in GA, ID, IN, MA, MI (two locations), NH, NJ, NY (two locations) NC, OH, OR, PA (two locations), UT, VT, WA, Ontario, and British Columbia.  Plantings for pest susceptibility studies are located in CT, MA, MI, NY-G, and VA.  Cultivars included: Golden Delicious (Gibson strain), McIntosh (Rogers strain), Ambrosia, BC 8S-25-33, BC 8S-27-51,  BC 8S-26-50, Coop 25, Coop 29, Coop 39, CRQ10T17, CQR 12-750, Delblush, Hampshire, Jubilee Fuji, Pinova, MN 1824 (Zestar), NJ 90, NJ 109, NY 75907-72, NY 75907-49, NY 65707-19, Pink Lady, Runkel, Autumn Gold.


               Horticultural Characteristics: Trees varied in size (height, spread and TCSA) both within and across locations.  At some sites, tree size was roughly correlated to total fruit yield.   All cultivars bloomed and fruited at all sites.  However, at individual sites, some cultivars had light bloom and/or did not set many fruit. Variation in order of bloom among the cultivars was apparent when sites were compared.  However, the order of fruit maturity was relatively consistent across sites. The most precocious genotypes in OR were Pinova, Pink Lady, Runkel, and Silken.


Several sites had studies of fruit maturation rates among the cultivars and how fruit quality develops during maturation (PA, VA, ONT-CA).    Fruit size, color, soluble solids content and acidity varied significantly among the cultivars.  With light crop loads and vigorous growth of young trees, physiological disorders such as Ca-deficiency induced fruit bitter pit was observed on some cultivars (notably Honeycrisp) at several sites.

               Fruit Quality characteristics:  Now that all cultivars in all states are fruiting it is possible to evaluate the fruit on attractiveness, flavor, crispness, juiciness, etc.  Several states submitted fruit quality comments in their individual state reports.  Orin was judged unacceptable by all reporters and Gala Supreme was marginal.  Ginger Gold was acceptable to all reporters.  Many apples were acceptable in southern areas but not northern, and vice versa.  Some matured too late for northern areas (Fuji, Braeburn, Goldrush).

        Pest Susceptibility Characteristics: Sansa was found to be infected by Tomato Ringspot virus.  Sansa will be dropped from further evaluation in the 1995 planting, but may be evaluated again when clean budwood is available.  Foliar disease infections were evaluated at several sites (MI, NY, VA, WV) and pest infestations determined at some sites as well (AR, PA, VT) both within the uniform trial and in additional apple cultivar trials.   In MI, all non-scab resistant cultivars developed apple scab symptoms although there was variability among the cultivars.  Codling moth damage was assessed in AR after application of mating disruption techniques.  Low levels of damage from codling moth were observed on Sunrise, Sansa, and Golden Delicious whereas Honeycrisp, Yataka, Late Yellow, Kogetow, Himekan, Suncrisp, and Fuji were badly affected by codling moth.


In MA, little leaf scab was evident on Gala Supreme, Enterprise, NY75414-1, Goldrush, Honeycrisp, and Pristine.  Varieties showing higher levels of scab were Shizuka, Fortune, Orin, Golden Delicious, Sunrise, and Braeburn.  For sooty blotch, flyspeck and other rots, the following varieties were less affected than others in their ripening season in VA: Sansa and Arlet (early ripening varieties), NY 75414-1 and Pioneer Mac (mid season varieties) and Yataka and Creston (late maturing varieties).


Populations of the spirea aphid varied greatly across the treatments in PA with cultivars such as Golden Delicious/Mark, Yataka/Mark, Honeycrisp, and Shizuka showing no signs of aphid infestation whereas, other cultivars such as Cameo, Fortune and Pristine maintained very high populations of aphids.


Objective 2.  Develop horticultural and pest management strategies for new cultivars

               The summer disease (sooty blotch and flyspeck) characteristics of scab-resistant cultivars, and effectiveness of disease control treatments was studied (PA).   Scab-resistant cultivars harvested in mid to late August did not have severe sooty blotch or fly speck; however, those harvested after that date had moderate to severe surface covered with the fungi.  Infections caused by other pathogens were also observed in addition to sooty blotch and fly speck.  For control of the summer diseases there was no cultivar by fungicide treatment interaction and a single preventive control recommendation could be given for all cultivars.


Objective 3.  Compare the costs of production and profitability of new apple cultivars

               Bill Lord (NH) has made progress in refining a spreadsheet for determining the cost of production for apples.  When different sprays or other cultural requirements that may differ for each cultivar included determining relative costs of productions will be possible.


Usefulness of Findings:

               This trial has provided useful findings after its first six seasons.  Precocity of these cultivars is now known.  Data on yield efficiency will show cultivars that are productive relative to tree size. The time of harvest and amount of early yield is critically important for developing recommendations of specific cultivars in specific growing regions and for specific purposes.  For instance, in this trial, some cultivars could be deemed as “summer cultivars” because they ripened in July or August in southern or warm areas; however, the same cultivars could be considered “autumn” cultivars when grown in more northern or cooler areas.  The time of maturity will dictate market potential and value of a specific cultivar in a specific location.  Some variation in both fruit external and internal quality (size, color, russet, firmness, soluble solids) occurred both among cultivars and was apparent among sites particularly northern vs. southern sites.    This information will be useful in determining the potential for growing the new cultivars in specific growing regions, the possible use of the fruit (processing vs. direct market vs. wholesale market) and will help growers develop an understanding and expectation of potential cultivar performance and management which will be necessary to maximize fruit quality traits.


               Information on the foliar pest and disease susceptibility has now been observed for 3-4 years.  The multiple year observations allow study of genotype by environment interactions for the pest or disease susceptibility. This season represented the third opportunity to evaluate the pest and disease susceptibility of the fruit.   The pest and disease susceptibility information will be useful for making recommendations for controlling potential problems, or for growers to anticipate possible crop damage and implement appropriate avoidance or protection strategies.  Furthermore, the information on both foliar and fruit pest and disease damage obtained from the trial (Objective I) will aid in developing decision-making protocols for insects and diseases (Objective II).   The information of fruit yield potential, fruit quality and pest susceptibility observed in the uniform test (Objective I) will assist in development of production cost and profitability models for the new cultivars (Objective III).


               The plantings at the various sites have been used extensively for grower demonstrations and field visits.  Therefore these plantings are a valuable educational resource in addition to their research function.


Work Planned for Next Year:

               Trees in the 1995 and 1999 multi-state uniform trials will be maintained according to protocols developed by the technical committee.  Each site is requested to collect the core data set and individual sites indicated additional studies of fruit quality, storage potential, and composition may be conducted. Plans for a 2003 trial will continue.






Refereed Journals:


Hampson, C.R. and H.A. Quamme. 2000. Use of preference testing to identify tolerance limits for fruit visual attributes in apple breeding.  HortScience 35(5):921-924.


Hampson, C.R., H.A. Quamme, J.W. Hall, R.A. MacDonald, M.C. King and M.A. Cliff. 2000. Sensory evaluation as a selection tool in apple

breeding. Euphytica 111:79-90.


Psarras, G. and I.A. Merwin. 2000. Water stress affects rhizosphere respiration rates and root morphology of young apple trees on M.9 and MM.111 rootstocks.   J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125(5):588-595.


Psarras, G., I.A. Merwin, A.N. Lakso, and J.A. Ray. 2000. Root growth phenology, root longevity, and rhizosphere respiration of field grown 'Mutsu' apple trees on 'Malling 9' rootstock.  J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125(5):596-602.


Isutsa, D.K. and I.A. Merwin.  2000. Malus germplasm varies in resistance or tolerance to apple replant disease in a mixture of New York orchard soils. HortScience 35 (2):262-268.


Merwin, I.A. and J.A. Ray. 1999. Orchard groundcover management systems affect meadow vole populations and damage to apple trees. HortScience 34 (2):271-274.


Yoder, K. S. 2000.  Effect of powdery mildew on apple yield and its economic management in Virginia.  Plant Disease 84:1171-1176.



Non-Refereed Publications:


Allen, R. A. and C. R. Rom.  2000 Apple Cultivars and Culture: A Review. Arkansas-Oklahoma Horticulture Industries Show.  p. 53-58.


Boccuzzo, L. Callus Regrowth and Tetrazolium Chloride Evaluations of Induced Freeze Damage to Four Apple Cultivars: ‘Ginger Gold’, ‘Honeycrisp’, ‘Pristine’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ in

Vermont. M. S. Thesis. University of Vermont.


Compton, J.M. and W.P. Cowgill Jr., 1999. “Sustaining the Apple Industry with New Cultivars, Part 1” Rutgers Cooperative Extension Plant & Pest Advisory Vol. 4(28)5


Compton, J.M. and W.P. Cowgill Jr., 2000. “Sustaining the Apple Industry with New Cultivars, Part 2” Rutgers Cooperative Extension Plant & Pest Advisory Vol. Vol. 4(29)3


Compton, J., Peters, M., Cowgill, W. September 2000. “Apple Maturity Update for North Jersey”, Rutgers Cooperative Extension Plant & Pest Advisory Newsletter, Fruit Edition, Vol. 5. 24 (3)

Compton, J., Cowgill, W. September 2000. “North Jersey Tree Fruit Maturity Update”, Rutgers Cooperative Extension Plant & Pest Advisory Newsletter, Fruit Edition, Vol. 5. 3 (1)


Compton, J., Cowgill, W., Peters, M. September, 2000. “North Jersey Apple Maturity Advances”, Rutgers Cooperative Extension Plant & Pest Advisory Newsletter, Fruit Edition, Vol. 5. 22 (1)


Compton, J., Cowgill, W., Peters, M. August, 2000. “Monitor Those Sugars”, Rutgers Cooperative Extension Plant & Pest Advisory Newsletter, Fruit Edition, Vol. 5. 21 (3)

Crassweller, R. M. 2000. Apples. in Pennsylvania Tree Fruit Production Guide 2000-01 J.W. Travis (coordinator) pp. 14-20.  The Pennsylvania State University.


Crassweller, R.M. and G.M. Greene. 2000. Horticulture section. In: G. Krawczyk (ed.). Fruit Times Vol. 17 1-15. Penn State Univ., Coll. of Ag. Sci., Univ. Park.


Crassweller, R.M., G.M. Greene II and D.E. Smith. 2000. Establishment of national apple variety trial plantings – 1999. Penn Fruit News 80(3): 38-41. 


Greene II, G.M. and S.S. Miller. 2000. Impact of fruit bud variables on the return bloom and productivity efficiency of York Imperial apples. Penn Fruit News 80(2): 37-38. 


Garcia, E.  Potential Apple Cultivars for Vermont. Available as an Extension publication upon request. On the web at:


Hampson, C.R., Quamme, H.A. and MacDonald, R.A. 2000. Recent apple releases from Summerland. British Columbia Fruit Growers’ Association HortForum Proceedings - 1999. British Columbia Orchardist Bulletin Publication 155 8803, Pp. 10, 37.


Merwin, I.A. 1999. Hard Cider: An old-new apple product. New York Fruit Quarterly 7 (3):3-6.






Committee Web Site




Peter M. Hirst                                                                               May 11, 2000

Chair, Technical Committee                                                                 Date




___________ ___________________                                       May 11, 2000  

Administrative Advisor                                                                           Date