Minutes of the NE-183 Technical Committee
Ramada Inn, Rochester, NY 30 October, 1995
NE-183 Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars

Participants and their Affiliations
R. Seem, Administrative Advisor, and S. Brown (Cornell Univ., NYSAES, Geneva),
D. Rosenberger, E. Stover, D. Straub (Cornell Univ., NYSAES, Hudson Valley
Lab), R. Byers and K. Yoder (Va Tech Ag Res. and Ext. Center, Winchester), R.
Crassweller and G. Greene (Penn State Univ.), A. Jones and J. Johnson
(Michigan State Univ.), D. Greene (Univ. of Mass.), C. Rom and R. McNew (Univ.
of Ark.), S. Miller (USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Res. Sta., Kearneysville,
WV), W. Cowgill (Rutgers Coop. Ext), J. Clements (Univ. of VT), A. Azarenko
(Oregon State Univ.), B. Barritt (Wa. State Univ.), A. Biggs (West Va Univ,

D. Greene serving as chair called the meeting to order at 8:30 am. The group
was reminded that at last year's meeting decision making would be done on most
issues by a simple majority of all the members present. Should specific
issues become more debatable then we may resort to allowing only the
officially designated representative of the project to vote.

Adopted Agenda
On a motion by Rom and a second by Barritt the agenda was adopted
see attached

Minutes 1994 Meeting
On a motion by Rom and a second by Brown the minutes from last year's meeting
were approved.

Introduction of Members and Guests
Each member introduced themselves. Hideo Bessho was recognized as a visiting
guest from the Morioka Research Station in Japan.

Comments from the Administrative Advisor
Seem reported that our CSREES representative was Jack Barnes but was unable to
attend the meeting due to health reasons, therefore he gave the report for
Jack Barnes as well as his own report. Currently the regional research
component of CSREES is in a state of flux. Federal formula funds to the land
grant institutions have been reduced by 1.5%. The participants should be
receiving some form of funding on this project, depending upon the policy of
an individual's experiment station. Seem reported that it is critical to
evaluate the achievements of the objectives in the second year of the project.
Last year there was no official report because the project was less than 6
months old. Seem filed a project statement in place of the report (see
attached). This year there will have to be a full report.

State Reports
D. Greene proceeded around the table calling on individuals to present their
state reports. Most states indicated that their 1995 planting was doing well.
S. Miller reported 8-10 trees were killed by fire blight in the horticulture
planting. J. Johnson reported that some spotty tree death presumed to be due
to summer drought. Nine cooperators indicated that their plantings were
irrigated. D. Rosenberger presented data on cultivar susceptibility to
powdery mildew and cedar apple rust. K. Yoder reported seeing false
"scab-like" lesions on Goldrush and NY75414-1(as did A. Biggs) , some
cultivars had high levels of powdery mildew and he and others expressed
concern about damage due to potato leaf hopper. A. Biggs indicated he will be
evaluating the disease presence on the trees planted at the USDA-ARS site. E.
Stover indicted that some of the trees did not develop significant branches
and that Honeycrisp seemed to have the worst damage due to potato leaf hopper.
A general discussion was also held on the susceptibility of Arlet to fruit

General Discussion:
All state reports not turned in at the meeting should be mailed to K. Yoder by
November 30, 1995. There was some discussion by the group as to who were the
members and it was agreed that R. Crassweller would send letters to the
official representative from each state to solicit a more comprehensive and
complete list. B. Seem asked how the group wants to publish or report on data
derived from the project. In a similar project (NC-140) it had been the
policy to publish a summary every 5 years and then a final 10 year report. B.
Seem indicated that reports could be sooner and offered the possibility of
publishing information through the Geneva Experiment Station Bulletin or
Report. A general discussion was then held about dual publication and the
right of individuals to publish separate from the group. As a result the
following motion was made by D. Rosenberger and seconded by A. Biggs

Individual core data sets are not to be published in refereed journals, unless
the Executive Committee feels there are extenuating circumstances for
professional reasons; but may be published in state reports, technical reports
or other vehicles as long as publication in these would not preclude later
publication in a refereed journal.

The motion passed unanimously on a voice vote.

The group felt that an interim report might consist of a pictorial portrayal
with written descriptions about the cultivars. This raised the question of
the ability and style of photography necessary to fill the report and whether
the appearance of the cultivar would look different in different geographical
locations. D. Rosenberger suggested that picutes of undesirable
characteristics are also needed to give an accurate portrayal of cultivar
expectations. S. Brown volunteered to serve as chair of a sub committee on
photography of the cultivars. Other members of the committee included A.
Jones, D. Greene, G. Greene and C. Rom. J. Johnson then requested that the
committee develop standards and procedures which members of the entire
committee should take picutres.

Committee Reports
Horticulture Subcommittee Members: Azarenko, Cowgill, Crassweller, Miller
(chair) Quamme, Rom, Schupp.
The suggested core data collection items were discussed. It was agreed by the
group that the cooperators with Pest Management plantings would initially
collect the horticulture data until it became obvious that pest pressure had
altered the horticultural characteristics. The following points were made
regarding the core data collection and methods
o Data should be sent to R. McNew by December 10
o Data designated to be collected at the "end of the growing season" should be
collected when the cooperator feels most growth has ceased. Or alternatively
collected at the same time each year.
o Trunk circumference (cross sectional area to be reported) shall be measured
between 30 and 60 cm above the soil line each year. The site must be below
the scaffolds and must be consistent (that is permanently mark the spot) each
o Tree height (the highest point above the ground) and tree spread (average
of within row and cross row spread) shall be collected each year.
o Tree mortality shall be recorded each year
o Average shoot length will NOT be collected
o Growth habit will not be collected this year.
o We encourage practices that would develop adequate scaffolds as long as it
is done on all trees as needed. This could include notching or use of
Promalin etc....
o Cooperators have the discretion to start trees over if there were
insufficient scaffold branches developed last year. The number is at the
discretion of the cooperator.
o Tie up the central leader to the post but do not head. Do not head
scaffolds, pinch laterals developing on the upper part of the central leader,
if they are narrow angled or competing with the central leader they can be
removed or pinched. In general follow a philosophy of minimal management of
the central leader.
o Flowering and Fruiting: minimize the number of fruit per tree. At best
only allow a few fruit on the tree around the central core and no fruit that
might bend the leader or scaffolds down. Count the number of flower clusters
per tree. Count and remove /adjust crop load at 10 mm fruit diameter.

Fruit Quality Assessment Subcommittee - S. Miller (chair)
Members: S. Brown, G. Greene, R. Beaudry, D. Greene
Since we do not expect fruit in any measurable quantity in 1996, this
committee was given an additional year to develop guidelines. The committee
is to have the guidelines to the entire membership prior to the meeting next
year so that the group can discuss them.

Pest Susceptibility Subcommittee - J. Johnson (chair)
Johnson passed out a management and sampling protocol for disease and insects
(see attached for greater detail). Since there may be differences in
susceptibility of the cultivars to pathogens and insects cooperators should
base their need to treat upon scouting data from the Golden Delicious control
trees. A guiding principle is to keep the trees in a condition so they do not
adversely suffer. Johnson will provide guidelines for materials to use.
There were additional adjustments to the attached protocols and revised
numbers will be sent by Johnson.

Economic Subcommittee - G. Greene (chair)
Members: W. Lord, J. Harper
G. Greene requested more interest in the economic objectives, currently only 2
states are listed under this objective. The data requested to be collected
include: quantity of fruit produced by each cultivar, and the packout into
the appropriate U.S. grades and sizes. Where appropriate data on other grades
such as special export or premium grades involving higher amounts of red color
than presently required in the U.S. grades should be collected. In addition,
estimates of the selling price of each grade and size would be required.
Economic data collection will probably not come into play until 1997.

Data Management - Ron McNew
Committee chairs are responsible for preparing generic data forms and
distributing them for use by the cooperators. Data should be submitted on an
IBM formatted disk in ASCII code. Alternatively, cooperators can send data
via e-mail. Data should be in by December 10

Progress on Objectives and Findings of Special Importance
It was felt that these were discussed in sufficient detail during the state
reports. The group felt that the objectives as outlined in the project are
still acceptable and important.

Future Plans
Cultivar Selection Subcommittee - D. Greene (chair)
Considerable time was spent debating how cultivars should be chosen, type of
planting and specific cultivars. A possible planting of fresh market
cultivars is being explored for 1998 (to be budded in summer 1996). The
cultivars were to number no more than 17 new cultivars (plus 3 standards of
Golden Delicious, McIntosh, and Rome Beauty). The cultivars will come
primarily from advanced selections by breeders but nurseries may also suggest
cultivars. Each breeder is to submit a list of no more than 10 of their top
selections with descriptions. The entire membership will vote on the list.
This should be available soon.

A second planting is being considered for 1999 or 2000 to specifically address
processing cultivars with and without disease resistance characteristics that
might need only a minimal spray schedule. Cooperators are to submit fruit
quality characteristics that processors are looking for to the breeders so
they can suggest appropriate candidates. R. Byers and G. Greene agreed to
solicit the criteria from the apple processors.

D. Greene will poll the cooperators as to their interest in either planting.

Consideration was also given to splitting the cooperators into common climatic
regions to maximize the selection of cultivars. D. Greene indicated that for
the 1995 planting the committee provided Adams County Nursery with 200 buds to
make the necessary trees. This amount proved to be insufficient (whether due
to numbers or quality of buds is unclear) and a recommendation was made that
to include a cultivar in the plantings at least 300 buds are needed given the
same number of cooperators desiring the plantings.

Other Business
C. Rom was elected Secretary elect for the coming year.

Future Meetings
In general many indicated that the down day on Sunday between the NC-140 and
the beginning of this meeting was not desirable. Others expressed a desire to
be able to visit or see new apple cultivars. After much discussion on the
meeting format it was agreed that K. Yoder will discuss with Ron Perry of
Michigan State about coordinating next year's meeting with the NC-140 meeting
to be held in East Lansing. (Currently the NC-140 meeting is scheduled for the
week beginning November 11,1996). Suggestions were made that we meet the day
immediately preceding the NC-140 meeting with a possible tour on the
intervening day. It was also suggested that the NE-183 meeting begin with an
evening session followed by an all day session.

Curt Rom offered to host the 1997 meeting if it is held in conjunction with
the NC-140 meetings. If not then he offered to host the meeting in September

Win Cowgill suggested the possibility of developing a home page on the World
Wide Web (WWW). The advantage would be that we could scan pictures and
information about apple cultivars onto the site. It would also provide the
general public greater access to the results from the trials. Bob Seem
indicated that one factor that is looked at in regional projects is the out
reach component. The development of a page would be a novel out reach tool.
Suggested funding sources would include International Dwarf Fruit Tree
Association and the USDA Extension Agriculture Telecommunication Fund. After
further discussion the following motion was made by R. Crassweller and
seconded by D. Straub:

W. Cowgill and J. Clements be authorized to solicit grant funds to support and
to set up a home page on the WWW as an outreach tool for the NE-183 project.

The motion passed unanimously on a voice vote.

With no further business the meeting adjourned at 4:45 pm

Respectfully submitted

Robert M. Crassweller
NE-183 Secretary