of the NE-183 Technical Committee
Inn, Rochester, NY 30 October, 1995
Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars
Participants and their
R. Seem, Administrative Advisor, and S. Brown (Cornell Univ.,
D. Rosenberger, E. Stover, D. Straub (Cornell Univ., NYSAES,
Lab), R. Byers and K. Yoder (Va Tech Ag Res. and Ext. Center,
and G. Greene (Penn State Univ.), A. Jones and J. Johnson
Univ.), D. Greene (Univ. of Mass.), C. Rom and R. McNew (Univ.
S. Miller (USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Res. Sta., Kearneysville,
WV), W. Cowgill
(Rutgers Coop. Ext), J. Clements (Univ. of VT), A. Azarenko
Univ.), B. Barritt (Wa. State Univ.), A. Biggs (West Va Univ,
Greene serving as chair called the meeting to order at 8:30 am.
was reminded that
at last year's meeting decision making would be done on most
issues by a
simple majority of all the members present. Should specific
issues become more
debatable then we may resort to allowing only the
representative of the project to vote.
On a motion
by Rom and a second by Barritt the agenda was adopted
On a motion by Rom and a second by Brown the
minutes from last year's meeting
Introduction of Members and Guests
member introduced themselves. Hideo Bessho was recognized as a visiting
from the Morioka Research Station in Japan.
Comments from the
Seem reported that our CSREES representative was
Jack Barnes but was unable to
attend the meeting due to health reasons, therefore
he gave the report for
Jack Barnes as well as his own report. Currently
the regional research
of CSREES is in a state of flux. Federal formula funds to the land
institutions have been reduced by 1.5%. The participants should be
some form of funding on this project, depending upon the policy of
individual's experiment station. Seem reported that it is critical to
the achievements of the objectives in the second year of the project.
Last year there was no official report because the project was less than 6
old. Seem filed a project
statement in place of the report (see
attached). This year there will have
to be a full report.
D. Greene proceeded around
the table calling on individuals to present their
state reports. Most
states indicated that their 1995 planting was doing well.
S. Miller reported
8-10 trees were killed by fire blight in the horticulture
planting. J. Johnson
reported that some spotty tree death presumed to be due
to summer drought.
Nine cooperators indicated
that their plantings were
irrigated. D. Rosenberger presented data on cultivar
powdery mildew and cedar apple rust. K. Yoder reported
"scab-like" lesions on Goldrush and NY75414-1(as did
A. Biggs) , some
cultivars had high levels of powdery mildew and he and others
concern about damage due to potato leaf hopper. A. Biggs indicated
he will be
evaluating the disease presence on the trees planted at the
USDA-ARS site. E.
indicted that some of the trees did not develop significant branches
Honeycrisp seemed to have the worst damage due to potato leaf hopper.
general discussion was also held on the susceptibility of Arlet to fruit
All state reports not turned in at
the meeting should be mailed to K. Yoder by
November 30, 1995. There was some
discussion by the group as to who were the
members and it was agreed that
R. Crassweller would send letters
official representative from each state to solicit a more comprehensive
complete list. B. Seem asked how the group wants to publish or report
derived from the project. In a similar project (NC-140) it had
policy to publish a summary every 5 years and then a final 10 year
Seem indicated that reports could be sooner and offered the possibility
publishing information through the Geneva Experiment Station Bulletin
Report. A general
discussion was then held about dual publication and the
right of individuals
to publish separate from the group. As a result the
following motion was
made by D. Rosenberger and seconded by A. Biggs
Individual core data sets
are not to be published in refereed journals, unless
the Executive Committee
feels there are extenuating circumstances for
professional reasons; but may
be published in state reports, technical reports
or other vehicles as long
as publication in these would
not preclude later
publication in a refereed journal.
The motion passed
unanimously on a voice vote.
The group felt that an interim report
might consist of a pictorial portrayal
with written descriptions about the cultivars.
This raised the question of
the ability and style of photography
necessary to fill the report and whether
the appearance of the cultivar would
look different in different geographical
locations. D. Rosenberger suggested
that picutes of undesirable
are also needed to give an accurate portrayal of cultivar
S. Brown volunteered to serve as chair of a sub committee on
of the cultivars. Other members of the committee included A.
D. Greene, G. Greene and C. Rom. J. Johnson then requested that the
develop standards and procedures which members of the entire
should take picutres.
Cowgill, Crassweller, Miller
(chair) Quamme, Rom, Schupp.
core data collection items were discussed. It was agreed by the
the cooperators with Pest Management plantings would initially
collect the horticulture
data until it became obvious that pest pressure had
horticultural characteristics. The following points were made
core data collection and methods
o Data should be sent to R. McNew by December
o Data designated to
be collected at the "end of the growing season" should be
when the cooperator feels most growth has ceased. Or alternatively
at the same time each year.
o Trunk circumference (cross sectional area
to be reported) shall be measured
between 30 and 60 cm above the soil line
each year. The site must be below
the scaffolds and must be consistent (that
is permanently mark the spot) each
o Tree height (the highest point
above the ground) and tree
of within row and cross row spread) shall be collected each
o Tree mortality shall be recorded each year
o Average shoot length
will NOT be collected
o Growth habit will not be collected this year.
We encourage practices that would develop adequate scaffolds as long as it
done on all trees as needed. This could include notching or use of
o Cooperators have the discretion to start trees over if there
branches developed last year. The number is at the
discretion of the cooperator.
Tie up the central leader to the post but do not head. Do not head
pinch laterals developing on the upper part of the central leader,
they are narrow angled or competing with the central leader they can
removed or pinched. In general follow a philosophy of minimal management
the central leader.
o Flowering and Fruiting: minimize the number
of fruit per tree. At best
allow a few fruit on the tree around the central core and no fruit that
bend the leader or scaffolds down. Count the number of flower clusters
tree. Count and remove /adjust crop load at 10 mm fruit diameter.
Quality Assessment Subcommittee - S. Miller (chair)
Members: S. Brown,
G. Greene, R. Beaudry, D. Greene
Since we do not expect fruit in any measurable
quantity in 1996, this
committee was given an additional year to develop
guidelines. The committee
to have the guidelines to the entire membership prior to the meeting next
so that the group can discuss them.
Pest Susceptibility Subcommittee
- J. Johnson (chair)
Johnson passed out a management and sampling protocol
for disease and insects
(see attached for greater detail). Since there
may be differences in
susceptibility of the cultivars to pathogens and insects
base their need to treat upon scouting data from the
Golden Delicious control
A guiding principle is to keep the trees in a condition so they do not
suffer. Johnson will provide guidelines for materials to use.
were additional adjustments to the attached protocols and revised
will be sent by Johnson.
Economic Subcommittee - G. Greene (chair)
W. Lord, J. Harper
G. Greene requested more interest in the economic
objectives, currently only 2
states are listed under this objective. The
data requested to be collected
quantity of fruit produced by each cultivar, and the packout into
appropriate U.S. grades and sizes. Where appropriate data on other grades
as special export or premium grades involving higher amounts of red
than presently required in the U.S. grades should be collected. In
estimates of the selling price of each grade and size would be required.
Economic data collection will probably not come into play until 1997.
Management - Ron
Committee chairs are responsible for preparing generic data forms and
them for use by the cooperators. Data should be submitted on
IBM formatted disk in ASCII code. Alternatively, cooperators can send
via e-mail. Data should be in by December 10
Progress on Objectives
and Findings of Special Importance
It was felt that these were
discussed in sufficient detail during the state
reports. The group felt that
the objectives as outlined in
the project are
still acceptable and important.
Selection Subcommittee - D. Greene (chair)
was spent debating how cultivars should be chosen, type of
planting and specific
cultivars. A possible planting of fresh market
cultivars is being explored
for 1998 (to be budded in summer 1996). The
cultivars were to number no
more than 17 new cultivars (plus 3 standards of
Golden Delicious, McIntosh,
and Rome Beauty). The cultivars
primarily from advanced selections by breeders but nurseries may
cultivars. Each breeder is to submit a list of no more than
10 of their top
selections with descriptions. The entire membership will vote
on the list.
This should be available soon.
A second planting
is being considered for 1999 or 2000 to specifically address
with and without disease resistance characteristics that
might need only
a minimal spray schedule. Cooperators
are to submit fruit
quality characteristics that processors are looking
for to the breeders so
they can suggest appropriate candidates. R. Byers
and G. Greene agreed to
solicit the criteria from the apple processors.
Greene will poll the cooperators as to their interest in either planting.
was also given to splitting the cooperators into common
regions to maximize the selection of cultivars. D. Greene indicated
the 1995 planting
the committee provided Adams County Nursery with 200 buds to
make the necessary
trees. This amount proved to be insufficient (whether due
or quality of buds is unclear) and a recommendation was made that
a cultivar in the plantings at least 300 buds are needed given the
number of cooperators desiring the plantings.
Rom was elected Secretary elect for the coming year.
In general many
indicated that the down day on Sunday between the NC-140 and
of this meeting was not desirable. Others expressed a desire to
be able to
visit or see new apple cultivars. After much discussion on the
it was agreed that K. Yoder will discuss with Ron Perry of
about coordinating next year's meeting with the NC-140 meeting
to be held
in East Lansing. (Currently the NC-140 meeting is scheduled for the
November 11,1996). Suggestions
were made that we meet the day
immediately preceding the NC-140 meeting
with a possible tour on the
intervening day. It was also suggested that
the NE-183 meeting begin with an
evening session followed by an all day session.
Rom offered to host the 1997 meeting if it is held in conjunction
the NC-140 meetings. If not then he offered to host the meeting
Win Cowgill suggested the possibility of developing
a home page on the World
Web (WWW). The advantage would be that we could scan pictures and
about apple cultivars onto the site. It would also provide the
public greater access to the results from the trials. Bob Seem
that one factor that is looked at in regional projects is the out
The development of a page would be a novel out reach tool.
funding sources would include International Dwarf Fruit Tree
and the USDA Extension Agriculture
Telecommunication Fund. After
further discussion the following motion was
made by R. Crassweller and
seconded by D. Straub:
W. Cowgill and J.
Clements be authorized to solicit grant funds to support and
to set up a home
page on the WWW as an outreach tool for the NE-183 project.
passed unanimously on a voice vote.
With no further business the meeting
adjourned at 4:45 pm
Robert M. Crassweller