Annual Report 1996


Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars

Supported by Allotments of the Regional Research Fund,
Hatch Act, as Amended August 11, 1955
January 1 to December 31, 1996

Cooperating Agencies and Principal Leaders

Station Cooperator(s)
AR Curt Rom* Donn Johnson Patrick Fenn Ron McNew
CT-NH Richard Kiyomoto*
GA Dan Horton Amy Savelle Warren Copes
MA Duane Greene* Wes Autio Dan Cooley
ME Jim Schupp*
MI Alan Jones* Phil Schwallier Randy Beaudry Joan Runkel
MO W. Hal Shaffer Michele Warmund Bruce Barrett
NC Turner Sutton* Mike Parker Jim Walgenbach Dick Unrath
NH Bill Lord*
NJ Bob Belding* Win Cowgill Bill Tietjen Dean Polk
Joe Goffreda
NY-I Ian Merwin*
NY-G D. Rosenberger* Susan Brown D. Straub
OH Dave Ferree* Diane Miller Mike Ellis
OR Anita Azarenko* S Mellenbacher
PA Rob Crassweller* George Greene Jay Harper Larry Hull
Jim Travis Ken Hickey
VA Keith Yoder* Ross Byers John Barden Rich Marini
VT Lorraine Berkett* Jon Clements
WA Bruce Barritt*
WI Teryl Roper*
WV Alan Biggs* Henry Hogmire
USDA/ARS Steve Miller Mark Brown
BC C. Hampson Harvey Quamme David Lane
NS Robert Prange Christine Deslauriers
Ontario John Cline
* Voting member

The 1996 annual meeting of the NE-183 Apple Cultivar Technical Committee was held November 12, 1996 at the Michigan State University Kellogg Biological Station in Hickory Corners, MI.

Progress of the work and principal accomplishments
I. Evaluate horticultural qualities and pest susceptibilities of new apple cultivars, strains, and advanced selections at numerous locations throughout the United States to determine both the limitations and positive attributes of these cultivars

Several trees did not produce any flowers in the spring of 1996 (PA); Pristine, however had the greatest number of flowers per tree and the highest density of flowers as measured by flower clusters per cross sectional area. Twelve cultivars flowered in the spring of 1996 (USDA/ARS) and six were allowed to fruit in the horticultural planting while 17 cultivars flowered and 11 were fruited in the pest planting.
At the end of the 1996 growing season Enterprise / M.9 and Shizuka / M.9 were the largest trees in the planting as measured by TCA (PA). Enterprise had the greatest incremental increase in trunk cross sectional area in 1996. Honeycrisp and NY75414-1 were the smallest trees planted in 1995 and remained the smallest trees at the end of the 1996 growing season.

II. Develop horticultural and pest management strategies for new cultivars or cultivar strains that are emerging as commercially accepted cultivars
Insect populations were monitored in a number of blocks throughout the country. Differences in the presence and level of insects were noted at different sites (PA, USDA/ARS). Insects studied included white apple leafhopper, spotted tentiform leafminer, and spirea aphid. In addition leaf rolling insect levels were also monitored. No differences based upon cultivars were observed (PA).
Incidence of diseases in unsprayed or reduced spray plantings were measured. Apple scab, powdery mildew and cedar apple rust severity varied depending upon the cultivar (VA). Some heavy European Red mite and white apple leafhopper pressure on some trees during August was observed in NY. Mildew was less severe in 1996 than in 1995 (NY-G). Pioneer Mac, Gala, Carousel and Orin were the most scab susceptible cultivars (NY-G). Considerable tree loss was observed due to fire blight at the USDA/ARS plantings.
A hypersensitivity of Honeycrisp to leaf hopper and or whitefly infestation was suspected (VT). Premature leaf drop was also observed in response to a serious flare-up in populations of both two spotted and European red mites in late August.

III. Compare the costs of production and profitability of new apple cultivars
At the present time the plantings are too young to have any meaningful data on yields and economic pack outs. In the coming year uniform data to be collected will include fruit quality, fruit size and grade pack out on a 50 fruit sample, where possible, and an estimate of the value of the crop.

Usefulness of findings
Multidisciplinary evaluation of new apple cultivars will provide critical information to insure the success of North American apple growers in what has rapidly become a very competitive, global fruit market. Armed with the information generated by this Project, orchardists will be more confident about planting, growing, and selling the new apple varieties that are sure to have a place in the world fruit market as we approach the year 2000.

Work planned for next year
Plantings will be maintained according to revised tree training guidelines adopted at the annual meeting. Cooperators are to use starch iodine assays as the means of determining fruit maturity.
Tree pruning, training, general maintenance and data collection will continue to be performed under the direction of the Horticulture subcommittee. A small crop of apples should be available for testing in the Planting's third leaf, thereby generating some initial impressions and data about the relative fruit quality and horticultural performance of these new apple cultivars.
NE-183 World Wide Web Internet pages will also be expanded to allow for better collaboration among cooperators, and to include pictures and descriptions of the planted cultivars.

Publications issued or manuscripts approved during the year

Buban, T., Helmeczi, B., Papp, J., Dorgo, E., Jakab, I., Kajati, I., and Merwin, I. 1996. IFP-compatible ground-cover management systems in a new-planted apple orchard. Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production. Crackow, Poland. 19(4):263-267.

Clements, J. 1996. Redfree Finds Marketing Niche in Minnesota. Northeast Sustainable Apple Production Newsletter. 6(2):3.

Cowgill, W.P., Jr.; Clements, J. 1995. The Virtual Apple Orchard: A New Medium for Dissemination of Apple Information. Proceedings. 71st Cumberland Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf., November 16-17, 1995. Winchester, Virginia.

Cowgill, W.P., Jr., J. Slifer, 1995. Apple Growth Regulator Studies in NJ-1995. Proc. 71st Cumberland Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf., November 16-17, 1995. Winchester, Virginia

Cowgill, W.P., Jr., M.H. Maletta, W.H. Tietjen, J. Compton, D. Polk, J.F. Goffreda. 1995. Preliminary Performance of Six Scab-resistant Apple Cultivars in Northwestern New Jersey. HortScience, 30(4) 843

Cowgill, W.P., Jr. 1995. The Tree Fruit Industry in New Jersey. Compact Fruit Tree. 28:158.

Crassweller, R. M. 1996. Identifying apple and other fruit varieties. PennPages #29401160 (revised)

Crassweller, R. M. 1996. How diverse is our apple germplasm. Penn. Fruit News 76(10):18-20.

Greene II, G.M. and W.C. Kleiner. 1996. Apple variety evaluation and maturity and storage studies on some newer apple varieties. (Report of 1995 research). Penn Fruit News 76(2): 45-51.

Levitan, L., Merwin, I.A., and Kovach, J. 1995. Assessing the relative environmental impacts of agricultural pesticides: The quest for a holistic method. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 55:153-168.
Merwin, Ian. 1996. Homegrown apples in New York. Eco-Gardening Factsheet #15, Cornell Coop Ext. Merwin, Ian. 1996. Weeds in the Orchard: Friends or Foes? AgNews Network. Cornell Coop. Ext.

Merwin, I.A., Ray, J.A., Steenhuis, T.S., and Boll, J. 1996. Groundcover management systems influence fungicide and nitrate-N concentrations in leachate and runoff from a New York apple orchard. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science 121(2) 249-257.

Merwin, I.A., Biltonen, M., and Ray, J.A. 1995. (Abs.) Compost mulch, canola cover crops, and herbicides affect soil fertility, apple tree yield and nutrition. HortScience 30(3):893.

Merwin, I.A., Steenhuis, T.S., and Ray, J.A. 1995. (Abs.) Orchard groundcover management systems influence surface runoff and subsoil leaching of agrichemicals. HortScience 30(3):842.

Merwin, I.A. 1995. Managing orchard replant disease without toxic soil fumigants. New York Fruit Quarterly 3(2): 6-9.

Rosenberger, D. A., K. S. Yoder, A. R. Biggs, R. K. Kiyomoto and R. McNew. 1996. Comparative susceptibility of 23 apple cultivars in the NE-183 trial to powdery mildew and cedar apple rust, 1995. Biological and Cultural Tests for Control of Plant Diseases 11: 36.

Tietjen, W. H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr., K.S. Petersen, D.F. Polk, G. Slifer. 1995. The Effect of Calcium Sprays on Incidence of 'Mystery Spot' on Enterprise Apple Proceedings 71st Cumberland-Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf.

Tietjen, W.H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. European Fruit Trends/International Dwarf Fruit Tree Association Summer Tour Proceedings of the 137th Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Fruit News, State Horticulture. Assoc. of PA. 76(4)77.

Tietjen, W.H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. Integrated Fruit Production in Europe Horticultural New, NJ State Horticulture. Soc. 76(1)3-6.

VanVranken, R.W., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. Utilizing Electronic Mail List Discussion Groups on the Internet to Enhance Communication in Specific Commodity Groups HortTechnology, 6(4) 318-324.

NE183 Cultivar Evaluation Project